How to use this Guide
Building Dynamics and Earthquake Forces
Typical Features of Unreinforced Masonry (URM) Construction
Typical Unreinforced Masonry (URM) Homes and Deficiencies
Seismic Mitigation of URM Structures
Non-Structural Seismic Hazards: Anchorage and Bracing

Appendix B


8d An eight penny common wire nail. Shank diameter equals 0.131 inches and the length equals 21/2 inches.

10d A ten penny common wire nail. Shank diameter equals 0.148 inches and the length equals 3 inches.

16d A sixteen penny common wire nail. Shank diameter equals 0.162 inches and the length equals 31/2 inches.

anchor bolt A steel rod with one hooked end and threads at the other end for a nut.

beam A horizontal structural element to support joists.

BLKG. abbr.. Blocking.

blocking Wood blocks used as filler pieces between framing members.

BTWN. abbr.. Between.

CLR. abbr.. Clear.

column (or post) A vertical structural element that often supports horizontal girders or beams.

compression A force which tends to shorten a member.

concrete block A manufactured building element made of concrete, usually 8" x 8" x 16", with open interior cores.

CONT. abbr.. Continuous.

crawl space A low (less than 18") space between the ground and the first floor.

dead load Load due to weight of the members, the supported structure, and permanent attachments to the structure.

deflection Displacement or movement of a structural element from self weight or an applied force downward normally due to gravity.